Warmhouse Beach 1

Client Name and Contact Information:


Bruno Ridolfi, Principle Engineer-Ridolfi Engineers; bruno@ridolfi.com; 206-682-7294

Steve Pendleton, Environmental Program Manager-Makah Tribe; mtcenviro@centurytel.net;



Technical Advisor:  Bridget Bero, Ph.D., P.E.; bridget.bero@nau.edu

Team Name and Contact Information: Warmhouse Beach Open Dump Treatment Team

Team Members:  Lydell Yazzie - lcy2@nau.edu; Natalie Bedard - nb255@nau.edu; Michael Orman - mo68@nau.edu; Benjamin Greenwell - bjg49@nau.edu

Description: C:\Users\bnb\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Outlook\2C90101C\100_1487.JPGFrom left: Natalie Bedard, Michael Orman, Ben Greenwell, Lydell Yazzie.


Problem Description:


The Warmhouse Beach site has been used as an unregulated open dump for many years.  The site reportedly originated when the land was leased by the U.S. Army in 1942 for the creation of the Makah Air Force Station.  The dump has had many contributors since that time and it has even amassed numerous hazardous chemicals.  The proximity of this site to the ocean and town of Neah Bay makes cleaning it up a priority.  The Warmhouse Beach Open Dump Treatment Team will, in conjunction with the Warmhouse Beach Open Dump Hydrologic Team (Team 2), design a treatment system which will clean the water coming from the site.

Scope of Services:

Task 1 – Project Management

The Scope of Services is arranged into the following tasks and subtasks.  The following sections detail the project management structure and communication methods of the team.  These teams will work together on certain areas of the project where the scopes overlap.  The two teams are the Treatment and Hydrologic Teams and are led by Lydell Yazzie and Kevin Davenport, respectively.  Communication will primarily come through these two individuals.

1.1 Team Coordination Meetings

For the reasons stated above, the two teams will meet together biweekly.  The teams will meet together with technical advisors to minimize the time requirements of the advisors.

Deliverables: Agenda, Meeting Minutes

1.2 Client Meetings

The Northern Arizona University (NAU) Treatment and Hydrologic Teams will meet with Ridolfi Engineering by teleconference on a regular basis.  Unless otherwise scheduled, meetings will occur every two weeks.  These meetings will usually take place Thursday mornings.  During these meetings, progress of the project will be discussed and additional design criteria and ideas will be deliberated.  Questions requiring the Makah Tribe’s attention will be addressed during these meetings.  Minutes from all client meetings will be provided to all meeting attendees for their review.  Meeting attendees should include all Treatment Team and Hydrologic Team members and involved Ridolfi personnel including Bruno Ridolfi, Tom Bowden, Paul Bianco, and Stephen Hannan.    

Deliverables: Agenda, Meeting Minutes

1.3 Advisor Meetings

Dr. Bridget Bero is the Technical Advisor for the NAU Treatment Team.  The Treatment Team will regularly meet with Dr. Bero to further the understanding of the project and to receive technical advice.  All technical work will be overseen by Dr. Bero.  Dr. Marti Blad serves as the Technical Advisor for the Hydrologic Team.  She serves as a supplementary resource and advisor for the Treatment Team.  Dr. Wilbert Odem serves as a tertiary advisor, given his expertise in waste containment and removal and his position as the Solid and Hazardous Waste professor at NAU.   

Deliverables: Meeting Minutes

1.4  Emails

When questions arise that need immediate attention or when deliverables are completed, communication from the Treatment Team to Ridolfi Engineering will be accomplished by email.  Most emails will come through the project manager, Lydell Yazzie.

1.5 File Sharing

A file sharing site was established by Ridolfi as an external to their website to facilitate the dissemination of information to all members of the teams.  Class mandated deliverables in finalized form, following delivery by email to pertinent parties, will be uploaded to the site.

1.6 Website

A project website will be created in compliance with project objectives from the course.  This will include information on the project, client, team members, and solutions. 

Deliverables:  Project website

Task 2 – Leachate Classification and Quantification

The leachate leaving the Warmhouse Beach Dump site is made up of many different constituents.  It is these chemical constituents and their concentrations which will determine the most appropriate remediation methods.  The current contaminants of concern include PCBs, Dioxins, and heavy metals.   

2.1 Leachate Classification

This leachate includes the contaminated precipitation that moves through the site, plus any liquids contained in or generated by the wastes.  A proper understanding of the contaminants of concern within the waste stream is needed in order to design remediation alternatives. A thorough data analysis of the information on leachate composition will be conducted. The data that the team will be analyzing will come from a monitoring report written by Ridolfi and the Preliminary Assessment and Removal Assessment reports written by the Environmental Protection Agency.

Deliverables: Contaminant Classification Memo

2.2 Leachate Transport

Movement of the leachate on the surface and in the subsurface strata is important to understand and model. Therefore, a hydro-geologic modeling of the landfill using the Hydrogeological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model will be conducted. The HELP model will provide information on the amount of leachate produced by the dump. The HELP model will be run for the dump’s current condition and a post closure condition. The amount of leachate produced is the primary variable needed to size the treatment system.

Deliverables: HELP model report

Task 3 – Identify Leachate Treatment Method

A treatment process will be designed to remediate the contaminated leachate runoff from the Warmhouse Beach Dump Site. This treatment process may be active or passive depending on the project requirements and may utilize bioremediation or other technologies. The team, in conjunction with Ridolfi Engineering, will identify the contaminants of concern and will evaluate the state of the art technologies to determine which will best meet the criteria. The team anticipates these criteria will focus on cost of implementation and maintenance, energy efficiency, and effectiveness of remediation technology while doing no additional harm to the surrounding environment.  Once the identification of the contaminants of concern is complete, the team will design a complete treatment process capable of treating the water to the required wastewater quality standards established by the EPA.

Deliverables:   Review of Technology Report, and Treatment Alternatives Decision Matrix

Task 4 – Engineering Design Report

The team will summarize all findings in a detailed design report.  The report will include documentation of data, analysis techniques, alternative treatment designs, results, conclusions, and recommendations.  This report will be presented to Ridolfi Engineering and the Makah Tribe for review and approval.  This report will include, but is not limited to:

Deliverables:  50%, 100% Reports

4.1 Cost Analysis

The team will provide a cost estimate to implement the selected solution.  This estimate will be based on the most current available prices for materials and labor.

Deliverables:  Detailed Cost Proposal

4.2 Relevant Regulations

The Makah Reservation is located within the jurisdiction of EPA Region 10 and uses the EPA’s water quality standards.  The team will review the USEPA regulations in addition to any pertinent Makah Tribal regulations which differ from the USEPA standards.  We anticipate the relevant regulations will include but are not limited to 40 CFR 260-265.  The USEPA regulations governing remediation and landfilling will be the primary design criteria, followed by the Washington State Model Toxics Act, if appropriate.  More stringent levels of remediation can be identified by the Makah Tribe. 

Deliverables:  Regulations Report